Addition Strategies

from Elementary and Middle School Mathematics by John A. Van De Walle
Pearson Education, Boston, 2004

Facts with Zero

Doubles

Near Doubles

Make Ten Facts

Other Strategies

 Activity 11.1 One-/Two-More-Than Dice            Make a die labeled +1, +2, +1, +2, "one more", and "two more." Use with        another die labeled 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. After each roll of the dice, children        should say the complete fact: "Four and two is six."    (page 160)

 Activity 11.2 One-/Two-More-Than-Match           In a matching activity, children can begin with a number, match that         with the one that is two more, and then connect that with the corresponding         basic fact.    (page 160)

 Activity 11.3 Lotto for +1/+2           A lotto-type board can be made on a file folder. Small fact cards can         be matched to the numbers on the board. The back of each fact card can         have a small answer to use as a check.   (page 160)

 Activity 11.4 What's Alike? Zero Facts There are 19 facts with zero as one of the addends.           Write about ten zero facts on the board, some with the zero first         and some with the zero second ( 0 + 4)  (7 + 0). Discuss how all these         facts are alike. Have children use counters and a part-part-whole mat         to model the facts at their seats.    (page 161)

Activity 11.5
Double Images
There are 10 doubles facts.

Have students make picture cards for each of the doubles,
and include the basic fact on the card, as shown below. 5                + 5                     _____

(Page 161)

 Activity 11.6              Calculator Doubles Use the calculator and enter the "double maker" (2 X =). Let one child         say, for example, "Seven plus seven." The child with the calculator should         press 7, try to give the double (14), and then press = to see the correct         double on the display. (Note that the calculator is also a good way to         practice +1 and +2 facts.)    (page 162)

 Activity 11.7 Double Dice Plus One           Roll a single die with numerals or dot sets, and say the complete         double-plus-one fact. That is, for 7, students should say,         "Seven plus eight is fifteen."    (page 162)

 Activity 11.8 Make Ten on the Ten-Frame           Give students a mat with two ten-frames. Flash cards are placed next to         the ten-frames, or a fact can be given orally. The students should first         model each number in the two ten-frames and then decide on the easiest         way to show (without counting) what the total is. The obvious (but not         the only) choice is to move counters into the frame showing either 8 or         9. Get the students to explain what they did. Focus especially on the idea         that 1 (or 2) can be taken from the other number and put with the 9         (or 8) to make 10. Then you have 10 and whatever is left.    (page 163)

Other Strategies:

Generic Task

 Activity 11.9 If You Didn't Know           Pose the following task to the class: If you did not         know the answer to 8 + 5 (or any other fact that you         really want students to think about), what are some         really good ways you can use to get the answer?         Explain, that "really good" means that you don't have         to count and you can do it in your head. Encourage         students to come up with more than one way. Use a         think-pair-share approach in which students discuss         their ideas with a partner before they share them         with the class.     (page 163)

Doubles Plus Two, or Two-Apart Facts

Make-Ten Extended

Counting On

Ten-Frame Facts

 Activity 11.10                                                 A Plus-Five Machine Use the calculator to practice adding five. Enter + 5 =           Next enter any number, and say the sum of that number plus 5 before           pressing =. Continue with other numbers. (The + 5 = need not be repeated.)           If a ten-frame is present, the potential for strengthening the 5 and 10           relationships is heightened.           Click here to get and print a ten-frame.    (page 165)

 Activity 11.11 Say the Ten Fact           Hold up a ten-frame card and have the children say the "ten fact".         For a card with 7 dots, the response is "seven and three is ten." Later,         with a blank ten-frame drawn on the board or printed, say a number         less than 10. Children start with that number and complete the "ten fact."         If you say "four", they say "four plus six is ten." Use the same activities         in independent or small group modes.     (page 165)

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