from Elementary and Middle School Mathematics by John
A. Van De Walle
Pearson Education, Boston, 2004
One More Than and Two More Than
Facts with Zero
Make Ten Facts
Make a die labeled +1, +2, +1, +2, "one more", and "two more." Use with
another die labeled 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
After each roll of the dice, children
should say the complete fact: "Four and two
In a matching activity, children can begin with a number, match that
with the one that is two more, and
then connect that with the corresponding
Lotto for +1/+2
A lotto-type board can be made on a file folder. Small fact cards can
be matched to the numbers on the
board. The back of each fact card can
have a small answer to use as a
What's Alike? Zero Facts
There are 19 facts with zero as one of the addends.
Write about ten zero facts on the board, some with the zero first
and some with the zero second ( 0 +
4) (7 + 0). Discuss how all these
facts are alike. Have children use
counters and a part-part-whole mat
to model the facts at their seats.
There are 10 doubles facts.
make picture cards for each of the doubles,
and include the basic fact on the card, as shown below.
Use the calculator and enter the "double maker"
(2 X =). Let one child
say, for example, "Seven plus seven."
The child with the calculator should
press 7, try to give the double (14),
and then press = to see the correct
double on the display. (Note that the
calculator is also a good way to
practice +1 and +2 facts.)
Double Dice Plus One
Roll a single die with numerals or dot sets, and say the complete
double-plus-one fact. That is, for 7,
students should say,
"Seven plus eight is fifteen."
Make Ten on the Ten-Frame
Give students a
mat with two ten-frames.
Flash cards are placed next to
the ten-frames, or a fact can be
given orally. The students should first
model each number in the two
ten-frames and then decide on the easiest
way to show (without counting) what
the total is. The obvious (but not
the only) choice is to move counters
into the frame showing either 8 or
9. Get the students to explain what
they did. Focus especially on the idea
that 1 (or 2) can be taken from the
other number and put with the 9
(or 8) to make 10. Then you have 10
and whatever is left.
If You Didn't Know
Pose the following task to the class: If you did not
know the answer to 8 + 5 (or any
other fact that you
really want students to think about),
what are some
really good ways you can use to get
Explain, that "really good" means
that you don't have
to count and you can do it in your
students to come up with more than
one way. Use a
think-pair-share approach in which
their ideas with a partner before
they share them
with the class.
Doubles Plus Two, or Two-Apart Facts
A Plus-Five Machine
Use the calculator to practice adding five.
Enter + 5 =
Next enter any number, and say the sum of that
number plus 5 before
Continue with other numbers. (The + 5 = need not be
If a ten-frame is
present, the potential for strengthening the 5 and 10
Click here to get and print a ten-frame.
Say the Ten Fact
Hold up a
ten-frame card and have the children say the "ten fact".
For a card with 7 dots, the response
is "seven and three is ten." Later,
blank ten-frame drawn on the board or printed, say a number
less than 10. Children start with
that number and complete the "ten fact."
If you say "four", they say "four
plus six is ten." Use the same activities
in independent or small group modes.
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Manipulatives and Activities