Addition Strategies

from Elementary and Middle School Mathematics by John A. Van De Walle
Pearson Education, Boston, 2004

    One More Than and Two More Than

    Facts with Zero


    Near Doubles

    Make Ten Facts

     Other Strategies


Activity 11.1
One-/Two-More-Than Dice

           Make a die labeled +1, +2, +1, +2, "one more", and "two more." Use with
       another die labeled 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. After each roll of the dice, children
       should say the complete fact: "Four and two is six."
   (page 160)


Activity 11.2

          In a matching activity, children can begin with a number, match that
        with the one that is two more, and then connect that with the corresponding
        basic fact.

page 160)


Activity 11.3
Lotto for +1/+2

          A lotto-type board can be made on a file folder. Small fact cards can
        be matched to the numbers on the board. The back of each fact card can
        have a small answer to use as a check.

  (page 160)

Activity 11.4
What's Alike? Zero Facts
There are 19 facts with zero as one of the addends.

          Write about ten zero facts on the board, some with the zero first
        and some with the zero second ( 0 + 4)  (7 + 0). Discuss how all these
        facts are alike. Have children use counters and a part-part-whole mat
        to model the facts at their seats.
   (page 161)    

Activity 11.5
Double Images
There are 10 doubles facts.

Have students make picture cards for each of the doubles,
and include the basic fact on the card, as shown below.


               + 5

   (Page 161)


Activity 11.6
             Calculator Doubles    

          Use the calculator and enter the "double maker" (2 X =). Let one child
        say, for example, "Seven plus seven." The child with the calculator should
        press 7, try to give the double (14), and then press = to see the correct
        double on the display. (Note that the calculator is also a good way to
        practice +1 and +2 facts.)

   (page 162)

Activity 11.7
Double Dice Plus One

          Roll a single die with numerals or dot sets, and say the complete
        double-plus-one fact. That is, for 7, students should say,
        "Seven plus eight is fifteen."

   (page 162)


Activity 11.8
Make Ten on the Ten-Frame

          Give students a mat with two ten-frames. Flash cards are placed next to
        the ten-frames, or a fact can be given orally. The students should first
        model each number in the two ten-frames and then decide on the easiest
        way to show (without counting) what the total is. The obvious (but not
        the only) choice is to move counters into the frame showing either 8 or
        9. Get the students to explain what they did. Focus especially on the idea
        that 1 (or 2) can be taken from the other number and put with the 9
        (or 8) to make 10. Then you have 10 and whatever is left.

   (page 163)


 Other Strategies:

            Generic Task

Activity 11.9
If You Didn't Know

          Pose the following task to the class: If you did not
        know the answer to 8 + 5 (or any other fact that you
        really want students to think about), what are some
        really good ways you can use to get the answer?
        Explain, that "really good" means that you don't have
        to count and you can do it in your head. Encourage
        students to come up with more than one way. Use a
        think-pair-share approach in which students discuss
        their ideas with a partner before they share them
        with the class.

    (page 163)

            Doubles Plus Two, or Two-Apart Facts

            Make-Ten Extended

            Counting On

            Ten-Frame Facts


Activity 11.10

                                                A Plus-Five Machine

            Use the calculator to practice adding five. Enter + 5 =
Next enter any number, and say the sum of that number plus 5 before
          pressing =. Continue with other numbers. (The + 5 = need not be repeated.)
          If a ten-frame is present, the potential for strengthening the 5 and 10
          relationships is heightened.
          Click here to get and print a ten-frame.

   (page 165)


Activity 11.11
Say the Ten Fact

          Hold up a ten-frame card and have the children say the "ten fact".
        For a card with 7 dots, the response is "seven and three is ten." Later,
        with a blank ten-frame drawn on the board or printed, say a number
        less than 10. Children start with that number and complete the "ten fact."
        If you say "four", they say "four plus six is ten." Use the same activities
        in independent or small group modes.

    (page 165)


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